An improved method of diffuse power distribution for off-grid microgrids with hybrid sources (2023)

Table of Contents
article preview Research in electrical power systems Proceed introduction section snippet Problem statement and microgrid modeling Proposed control scheme simulated results experimental validation Conclusion Contribution Statement Created by CRediT Expression of interest in the tender references(31) J. Electr. electric power system representative of power em t. J. Hydrog. Energy Energy Electric Power System Res. Renew. Rev. of sustainable energy. Review of the wind-solar hybrid energy system em t. Res. J. Science-Ing. Back-based non-linear control to track maximum power point in PV system solar energy Comparison between different energy management strategies to reduce hydrogen consumption in a fuel cell/supercapacitor/battery hybrid system em t. J. Hydrog. Energy. Advanced Control Architectures for Smart Microgrids - Part II: Power Quality, Energy Storage, and AC/DC Microgrids Trans. IEEE. Ind. Elektron. Hierarchical control of drop-controlled AC and DC microgrids: a general approach to standardization Trans. IEEE. Ind. Elektron. Analysis of the slope controller of the microgrid inverter with virtual output impedance under non-linear load conditions IET PowerElektron Fully distributed hierarchical control of parallel grid support inverters in isolated AC microgrids Trans.IEEE. reported Modeling and sensitivity study of distributed hierarchical control based on consensus algorithms for DC microgrids Trans. IEEE. smart rot Decentralized control for parallel operation of inverters with distributed generation with resistive output impedance Trans. IEEE. Ind. Elektron. Cited by (0) Featured Articles (6) FAQs Videos
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Research in electrical power systems

Banda 217,

April 2023

, 109069

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In this article, a modified energy distribution methodology with improved fuzzy control for a hybrid island microgrid system was addressed. The voltage and frequency control with the proposed technique takes into account the input power variation that is normally effective when considering the supply of renewable energy for distributed generation (DG). This power variation can cause a voltage variation that can affect the power sharing between DGs. In this article, a model-based method is used that takes into account the storage unit in the system to adjust the active and reactive power distribution when the input power changes. There is sufficient distribution of active and reactive power between the DGs connected in parallel. Optimal controller slopes are determined dynamically under different physical conditions, e.g. Solar radiation, wind speed, etc. to share energy effectively. A new control based on fuzzy logic is proposed for the individual units, in order to improve the energy transmission capacity. The effectiveness of the proposed method will be evaluated through an appropriate simulation and experimental verifications carried out in a practical microgrid prototype that presented satisfactory results.


The growing demand for electricity in the world has fueled the rise of renewable energy for power generation. The issue has accelerated even further with the rise in the price of conventional energy sources. Over time and with the introduction of renewable energies, the traditional electrical grid has been transformed into smaller networks to provide energy with guaranteed maximum efficiency. In recent years, microgrids (MGs) have attracted the interest of many researchers, as they facilitate the integration of renewable energies (RE) into the distribution network. The main challenge is the control of the microgrid, taking into account all non-linearities and fluctuations of renewable sources. Integrating more reliable power electronic technologies to transmit power at a constant frequency is another topic that researchers are working on to achieve better power delivery. The most common and popular renewable energy is solar energy due to significant technological advances in the development of a photovoltaic (PV) cell that efficiently and reliably operates at variable solar irradiance to track and deliver power to the consumer.

The main advantages of solar energy are its greater availability and consequent advances in the conversion of solar energy into electrical energy. This technology is relatively inexpensive compared to conventional thermal power plants and other unconventional sources of electricity generation [1,2]. However, the main challenge lies in the intermittent nature of solar generation, which offers its applications in low solar irradiance or at night. This problem can be overcome by integrating storage systems with a photovoltaic generation system. Battery Energy Storage System (BESS) is the most popular storage device, often used as a backup unit. The recent development of rechargeable Li-ion battery technology has brought more flexibility to the storage part of power systems [3,4]. Wind energy is another form of energy that is readily available in nature. However, the biggest challenge is to generate electrical energy from different wind speeds. With the advancement of power electronics, converters and electrical generators, even wind energy can be included as a state-of-the-art source.

With the integration of multiple DG systems with storage devices, the control and design of power electronic converters is a great challenge for researchers. This adds to the complexity of the system, along with the need for a huge communication network. Therefore, the overall efficiency is drastically reduced when multiple converters are operated in parallel along with their control topologies [5].

The traditional method of controlling an MG is droop control [6], [7], [8]. In this control topology, a primary and a secondary control loop are designed to share frequency and active power [9]. However, the main problem here is maintaining the voltage level with the feeder impedance, which often makes it difficult to exchange reactive power between all DG units. Most researchers focus on improving conventional drooping control, which still suffers from reactive power sharing and voltage mismatch due to feeder impedance [10,11]. To overcome this limitation, several modifications are studied and proposed. One of these methods is the insertion of a virtual impedance, which leads to a decoupling of active and reactive power. This leads to a better distribution of power among all DGs [12,13]. However, this increases the voltage drop, making voltage profiling very difficult [14]. Modifying existing dip control topologies takes into account the dominant inductive or resistive nature of the network. This affects the overall performance of the MG, resulting in efficiency sacrifice [15,16]. To maintain the inductive and resistive character of the line as a unit, frequency and voltage are combined with active and reactive power. This puts a lot of pressure on traditional proportional integral (PI) controllers, as the integral and proportional gains need to be increased, which reduces system stability [17,18].

Dynamic behavior is another issue that needs to be addressed and resolved. One approach is to include a single control loop at the secondary level so that voltage recovery and power sharing can be handled simultaneously. This can be achieved by adjusting the sink coefficients; However, this technique increases the steady-state error of the entire system [19,20]. Every controller has its limitations and weaknesses. Due to dynamic generation and load fluctuations, this paper implements a control topology based on a fuzzy logic controller (FLC), which offers more flexibility and better performance than conventional PI controllers [21], [22], [ 23] . This article addresses the voltage unbalance and power sharing problems faced by drooping control and proposes a method that can be overcome by introducing a new hierarchical control topology. The influence of feeder resistance and reactance was taken into account to allow accurate analysis and detailed modeling. The fuzzy logic controller is used to find the non-linear dynamic behavior of the system and therefore a decision-based prediction for voltage and frequency is proposed. Furthermore, a new energy sharing algorithm was proposed and tested for different loads. The results successfully demonstrate that the voltage profile is maintained and proper energy distribution is obtained without affecting system stability.

section snippet

Problem statement and microgrid modeling

In the proposed model, the schematic diagram of the considered microgrid system is shown in Fig. 1. Photovoltaic system, PMSG-based wind turbine and a storage battery are considered sources of DG. Furthermore, to minimize the reactive power, an SVC unit is connected to cover the reactive power demand in various DG modes.

This document proposes an optimal frequency operation for the photovoltaic hybrid wind microgrid, mainly for island operation. In this work, the practice

Proposed control scheme

The proposed scheme takes into account both reactance and line resistances to improve power distribution in changing weather conditions when the generation of wind and photovoltaic sources connected to the microgrid is constantly changing, since all GDs include converters power electronics, these are interconnected with the serial network. Inductors Therefore, the impedance for the DG connection is mostly reactive, ie X>>R. On the other hand, for the distribution line, both R and X can exist. Him

simulated results

The system considered for the simulation is shown in the block diagram of Figure 12(b). In the block diagram, the DG units of the photovoltaic array, the wind turbine and a battery for the backup system are connected to the microgrid. SVC is also connected for power factor correction as mentioned and Mg is connected to different types of loads. Simulation studies of the proposed control topology are carried out in a MATLAB/SIMULINK environment. Several case studies are considered for evaluation

experimental validation

The proposed system is implemented in OPALRT Fig. 19, which provides real-time simulation performance, and the results are shown below. In Fig. 20 is shown the output power of the inverter connected to photovoltaic solar energy, and in Fig. 21 is given the output current obtained from the inverter connected to the WECS. It is observed that the output current obtained in Fig. 13(a) is confirmed with the results obtained in real-time simulation based on OPART. The same can be observed for Figure 21, which agrees


This article evaluates the autonomous performance of the BESS Wind Photovoltaic Hybrid Microgrid. A new control topology is proposed, which is evaluated in different scenarios to challenge the behavior and stability of the system under control. The modeling of the microgrid is done taking into account both the resistance and the impedance of the line, which the researchers had not done before. Diffuse controls provide better dynamic response than traditional drop controls

(Video) How to Design a Wind & Solar Hybrid Off-Grid Power System for Residential or Commercial Applications

Contribution Statement Created by CRediT

Anagha Bhattacharya:Conceptualization, methodology, validation, software, validation, formal analysis, research, writing - original draft, visualization.Debashis Chatterjee:Writing: proofreading and editing, supervision.Swapán Kumar Goswami:Writing: proofreading and editing, supervision.

Expression of interest in the tender

The authors declare that they have no competing financial interests or known personal relationships that could have influenced the work described in this document.


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    Trans. IEEE. Ind. Elektron.

    (April 2007)

  • Cited by (0)

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    What is hybrid microgrid system? ›

    Hybrid microgrid systems (HMGS) comprise of several parallel connected distributed resources with electronically controlled strategies, which are capable to operate in both islanded and grid connected mode.

    What are the power sources for microgrids? ›

    A microgrid utilizes renewable energy sources such as solar panels, wind turbines, battery storage, diesel gensets and combined heat and power (CHP) modules–operating separately or in parallel. Diesel or gas generator sets may also be included, along with battery banks to store electricity and deliver it when needed.

    What do you mean by hybrid AC DC microgrid? ›

    The hybrid AC-DC microgrid reduces multiple power conversions in individual AC or DC microgrid and allows connection of variable AC and DC sources and their respective loads simultaneously.

    What is a microgrid in distributed generation? ›

    Microgrids are localized electric grids that can disconnect from the main grid to operate autonomously. Because they can operate while the main grid is down, microgrids can strengthen grid resilience, help mitigate grid disturbances, and function as a grid resource for faster system response and recovery.

    What is hybrid off-grid system? ›

    A hybrid solar system is grid-tied with battery storage. They come with a special 'smart' inverter that can transmit direct current (DC) power to and from your batteries, and channel alternating current (AC) power between the grid and your home when necessary.

    What is hybrid off-grid solar system? ›

    A solar hybrid system is a renewable energy system that uses solar photovoltaic (PV) panels to generate clean energy to power your home. A hybrid solar system intelligently switches between using solar power, battery storage and grid power. It allows you to avoid using grid power at peak prices leading to bill savings.

    What are the advantages of hybrid microgrid? ›

    Aided by sharp declines in the cost of wind and solar energy, as well as lower energy storage costs relative to the price of fuel, hybrid microgrids are well suited to a host of applications, including individual buildings, resorts, mine sites, remote villages, small islands and others.

    What are the 4 power sources? ›

    Learn more about America's energy sources: fossil, nuclear, renewables and electricity.

    Which is better AC or DC microgrid? ›

    DC microgrid systems are preferred over AC microgrid systems because they are more effective due to the lack of converter requirements. Energy losses occur during each conversion phase thus more energy losses occur in the AC microgrid system compared to the DC microgrid (Shuai et al., 2018; Hossain et al., 2019) .

    What is the use of hybrid power system? ›

    Hybrid systems can increase the amount of dispatchable renewable energy generation as well as the reliability of rural energy access. A hybrid energy system combines multiple types of energy generation and/or storage or uses two or more kinds of fuel to power a generator.

    How does a hybrid AC work? ›

    What Is Hybrid Cooling? As compared to traditional air conditioning, a hybrid system uses a heat pump to cool your home. A hybrid system is both a heating and a cooling system and it can be integrated into virtually any home which has a forced-air system.

    What is an ideal solution for off grid low power system as well as distributed generation? ›

    Solar photovoltaic panels. Small wind turbines. Natural-gas-fired fuel cells. Emergency backup generators, usually fueled by gasoline or diesel fuel.

    What is micro grid distribution system? ›

    A microgrid is a group of interconnected loads and distributed energy resources that acts as a single controllable entity with respect to the grid. It can connect and disconnect from the grid to operate in grid-connected or island mode. Microgrids can improve customer reliability and resilience to grid disturbances.

    What are the 3 key characteristics in microgrid energy system? ›

    A microgrid is a local energy system which incorporates three key components; Generation, Storage and Demand all within a bounded and controlled network.

    What is the difference between off-grid on grid and hybrid? ›

    In terms of energy storage, on-grid systems do not need storage; off-grid systems use very large storage, and hybrid systems use a storage size depending on load requirements. In an on-grid solar system, when there's no power from the national grid, there is a blackout (if there's no storage).

    What are the advantages of hybrid off-grid systems? ›

    What are the Advantages of Hybrid Off-Grid Systems? A hybrid system is less expensive to install and maintain than an off-grid one and you don't need a backup generator to power it. Plus, you can decrease your battery size.

    What is the difference between off-grid and hybrid? ›

    Off-grid inverters cannot synchronise with the utility grid. These are designed to work alone. An off-grid inverter cannot feed power derived from solar or battery into the utility grid. On the other hand, the hybrid inverter can feedback on the power to the utility grid.

    What is Offgrid hybrid inverter? ›

    Off-grid inverters are designed to work alone and cannot synchronise with the grid. They connect to the property in place of grid power and cannot work in conjunction with it. Off grid inverters must supply power from DC to AC instantly to power the appliances.

    Can you go off-grid with hybrid inverter? ›

    Hybrid inverters are available in both On Grid and Off Grid scenarios.

    What are the advantages of hybrid methods? ›

    Hybrid work model: 5 advantages
    • Increased productivity. ...
    • Improved employee satisfaction and culture. ...
    • More possibilities for continuous learning. ...
    • Better collaboration and work relationships. ...
    • Improved mental health.

    Which of the following are the advantages of hybrid system? ›

    Hybrid systems provide increased flexibility by allowing you to select the specific instruments for your system regardless of the bus and to expand the system as system requirements change.

    What are the advantages of hybrid layout? ›

    A benefit to this type of layout is an increase in product quality. With this type of layout, it is easy to locate the source of a potential problem with the products. If the products from one particular workstation keeps coming up faulty, then that workstation can be singled out for troubleshooting.

    What is the most powerful power source? ›

    Nuclear Has The Highest Capacity Factor

    As you can see, nuclear energy has by far the highest capacity facto r of any other energy source.

    What are the 6 methods of producing electricity? ›

    In this learning activity you'll review the six different ways in which electricity is produced: chemical, friction, heat, light, magnetism, and pressure.

    What is the most energy efficient source of power? ›

    Often ranked as one of the most efficient energy sources, wind energy is harnessed all over the world. Of course, some spots are known as being windier than others, and companies typically make use of these spots by building wind farms filled with turbines there.

    What is the difference between power grid and microgrid? ›

    As the name suggests, the microgrid is engineered to work in small community areas. On the other hand, the smart grid is designed to handle power supply for large communities and is the digital technology used for two-way communication between utilities and their customers, and sensors along transmission lines.

    How many types of power grids are there? ›

    The electrical grid is divided into three main components 2: GENERATION – There are two types of generation – centralized and decentralized. Centralized generation refers to large-scale generation far from consumption. This includes coal, nuclear, natural gas, hydro, wind farms and large solar arrays.

    What is an advanced microgrid? ›

    Advanced Microgrid Systems provides customized Microgrids which supply facilities with electrical and thermal energy derived from fossil and renewable feedstocks. We tailor an energy supply to the way your business consumes energy, incorporating the efficiency and environmental goals you desire.

    What are the advantages of DC microgrid over AC microgrid? ›

    DC microgrid has advantage over AC microgrid in terms of system efficiency, cost, and system size. Because lesser number of power electronic converters is required, the overall efficiency improves. Additionally, AC/DC converters do not require a transformer, which reduces the size of DC microgrid significantly.

    Why is AC better than DC for power distribution? ›

    Alternating current is cheaper to generate and has fewer energy losses than direct current when transmitting electricity over long distances.

    What is the difference between DC microgrid and AC microgrid? ›

    The operational principle of DC microgrids is quite similar to their AC counterparts. The main difference between them is the DC bus network for interconnection rather than the AC bus which interconnects the distributed generators and loads in the network.

    What are hybrid systems for off-grid power supply? ›

    Hybrid power systems use a combination of renewable sources to provide reliable energy for almost any situation. Combining wind, solar and generator backup, hybrid power systems can provide off-grid energy in most conditions.

    What are the types of hybrid energy system? ›

    Leaving aside hybrid installations with diesel generators, the most common types of hybrid electrical power combinations are: Photovoltaic + Wind. Photovoltaic + Hydraulic. Hydraulic + Wind.

    What are the examples of hybrid system? ›

    Examples of such systems include flexible manufacturing and chemical process control systems, interconnected power systems, intelligent highway systems, air traffic management systems, and computer and communication networks.

    What is the main disadvantage of a hybrid? ›

    Disadvantages of hybrid cars

    Less power: Hybrids combine both an electric motor and a gasoline engine, with their gasoline engine primarily operated as the power source. Therefore, neither the gasoline engine nor the electric motor works as strongly as they do in conventional gasoline or electric cars.

    Can a hybrid run without electricity? ›

    No. Plug-in hybrids can be charged to run on mostly electric power usually for the first 25 to 50 miles before they revert to regular hybrid operation, but they will still operate even if they are never plugged in. Examples include the BMW X5 xDrive45e, Ford Escape PHEV, Hyundai Tucson PHEV, and Toyota RAV4 Prime.

    What is the best way to generate electricity off-grid? ›

    Solar power is the most popular and available option when it comes to off-grid energy. How does off-grid solar storage work? Solar panels first convert solar energy or sunlight into DC power using what is known as the photovoltaic (PV) effect.

    How can I improve my off-grid solar system? ›

    Properly maintaining your battery bank can improve efficiency and extend the lifespan of your off-grid solar system.
    Tips for Maintaining an Off-Grid Solar System
    1. Check the charge level. ...
    2. Equalize your batteries. ...
    3. Check the fluid level. ...
    4. Clean the batteries. ...
    5. Do not mix batteries.
    Dec 21, 2018

    What is the most effective way to reduce the cost of power generation in a power station? ›

    The greater the diversity factor, the lesser is the cost of generation of power. Because greater diversity factor means lesser maximum demand. Now, lower maximum demand means a lower capacity of the plant which reduces the cost of the plant.

    What is the distribution system for smart grid? ›

    "Distribution intelligence" refers to the part of the Smart Grid that applies to the utility distribution System, that is, the wires, switches, and transformers that connect the utility substation to you, the customers. The power lines that run through people's back yards are one part of the power distribution System.

    What is grid-connected mode in microgrid? ›

    In grid-connected mode, the microgrid can exchange power with the external grid as to maintain the supply in the local microgrid, though the power flow of microgrid is bidirectional. While in islanded mode, the power supply of microgrid must meet the load demand.

    What is distribution management system in smart grid? ›

    The distribution management systems for smart grid include several functions for manipulating legacy voltage control devices and distributed energy resources through closed-loop volt/var control, leading to wide-area regulation of voltages in the presence of fluctuating power.

    What are the 3 types of uses of solar energy in power generation? ›

    • Uses of Solar Energy in India.
    • Solar Energy for Cooking.
    • Solar Energy for Industries.
    • Solar Energy for Battery Charging.
    • Solar Water Heater.

    What are the four major components of electrical power grid? ›

    The Energy Grid Infrastructure:

    The Grid has four major components: electricity generators, transmission lines, distribution networks, and consumer use.

    What are the key components of an off grid solar panel system? ›

    For most DC-coupled off-grid systems it really comes down to four main components – solar panels, charger controller, inverter and the battery bank.

    What is difference between hybrid and on grid solar system? ›

    The only difference is that hybrid PV system is not entirely dependent on the grid for its functioning—unlike on-grid solar system. It starts using energy from the grid instead of solar batteries during the evening and night times —thus acts just like the regular UPS.

    What is hybrid system explain? ›

    Hybrid electric vehicles are powered by an internal combustion engine and one or more electric motors, which uses energy stored in batteries. A hybrid electric vehicle cannot be plugged in to charge the battery. Instead, the battery is charged through regenerative braking and by the internal combustion engine.

    What is the difference between off-grid and hybrid solar system? ›

    Off-grid solar systems require specialised off-grid inverters and battery systems large enough to store energy for 2 or more days. Hybrid grid-connected systems use lower cost hybrid (battery) inverters, and only require a battery large enough to supply energy for 5 to 10 hours (overnight) depending on the application.

    What is the difference between a on grid off-grid and hybrid inverter? ›

    Off-grid inverters cannot synchronise with the utility grid. These are designed to work alone. An off-grid inverter cannot feed power derived from solar or battery into the utility grid. On the other hand, the hybrid inverter can feedback on the power to the utility grid.

    How does a hybrid off-grid inverter work? ›

    A hybrid inverter is a machine that converts DC generated by a solar panel into AC for household appliances. A hybrid solar inverter stores excess solar energy in a storage system that can be used for it, much like a grid-tied. The stored AC power is then converted from the batteries to power the load when needed.

    Which is better off-grid or on grid solar system? ›

    Especially for residential houses, on-grid solar systems are appealing in that they do not require bulky and costly battery storage solutions, and you will also need fewer solar panels than you would if you were on an off-grid system – due to no need for producing extra power when there is no sunlight.

    What are three types of hybrid systems? ›

    There are three main types of hybrid vehicle; full hybrids, mild hybrids and plug-in hybrids. A full hybrid (FHEV) can run on just the combustion engine (i.e. diesel/petrol), the electric engine (i.e. power from batteries), or a combination. The Toyota Prius is the most commonly known example of this.

    What are the 4 main categories of hybrid system? ›

    System Architecture of 4 types of electric cars is as follows:
    • Battery Electric Vehicles (BEVs) BEVs are also known as All-Electric Vehicles (AEV). ...
    • Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV): HEVs are also known as series hybrid or parallel hybrid. ...
    • Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV): ...
    • Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle(FCEV):

    What is hybrid power systems with examples? ›

    In power engineering, the term 'hybrid' describes a combined power and energy storage system. Examples of power producers used in hybrid power are photovoltaics, wind turbines, and various types of engine-generators – e.g. diesel gen-sets.

    What are the pros and cons of hybrid work model? ›

    Pros of hybrid working
    • Improved work-life balance. ...
    • Increased productivity. ...
    • The chance to collaborate. ...
    • Increased employee retention and access to wider talent pools. ...
    • Lower costs. ...
    • It can feel isolating for some people. ...
    • Managing Health and Safety responsibilities can be more of a challenge.
    Jun 9, 2022

    What is the advantage of off-grid solar system? ›

    More Energy Savings

    Unlike a grid tied system, in an off grid system you won't sell any energy you generate back to the Grid. This is because you will consume 100% of the energy which you generate, either from your battery storage system or generator, meaning you will be completely energy bill free.


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